The “Big Data” has been a buzzword for both private and public sectors in Taiwan in the past few years. As an economic development strategy, the government support to create an array of new big data industries is now realized by making available personal data collected for different purposes by the government. While such data, ranging from national health insurance information and newborn registration to college entrance exams results and electronic toll collection records, is mostly provided without direct personal identifiers to big data users, some people still worry that it is done at the expense of sacrificing individual autonomy. In this presentation, I will first discuss the weakness and problems of Taiwan’s data protection law in protecting personal privacy in the era of big data. I will take as an example of the lawsuit challenging the government policy of refusing individuals to withdraw their national health insurance information from being secondly used for big data research.